What Is Search Engine Optimization?

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Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of enhancing the ranking of a website or webpage on a Search Engine Results Page ( SERP) to make the website of a client more searchable (i.e., first page/s), thereby increasing traffic and sales. 

Stressful, demanding technical and business decisions, and not guaranteeing results — it still provides beneficial results.

SEO also requires a coordinated effort within a company involving several departments including design, marketing, and content development teams. While some SEO research includes market analysis (e.g., comparing content to competitors’), a large portion relies on the ranking algorithms of different search engines, which can change over time. 

However, a rule of thumb is that websites and web pages with content of higher quality, more external reference links and more user engagement will rank higher on a SERP.

How SEO Works?

Search engines like Google have an algorithm or set of rules to determine which pages to display for any query in question. Such algorithms have developed to be highly complex, and take hundreds and even thousands of different ranking factors into account to determine their SERP rankings. 

Search engines conduct several operations to produce search results.


The process of retrieving all linked web pages from a website. A program , called a crawler or a spider (or Googlebot, in the case of Google) performs this function.


The process of creating index for all web pages collected and storing them in a huge database from which they can be retrieved later. In general, the indexing method is to find the terms and phrases that best characterize the page, and assign the page to different keywords.


Once a search request comes up, it is handled by the search engine, i.e. the search string in the search request is compared with the indexed pages in the database.

Measuring relevance

The search string is likely to contain more than one page, so the search engine begins measuring the relevance of each of the pages in its index to the search string.

Retrieving Results

Recovery of the best matched results is the last step in search engine activities. Essentially, it’s nothing more than just showing them in your browser.

Ways of SEO Optimization

1. On Page SEO   

It is the practice of optimizing the pages of a website to make them rank higher on search engines. These are the simplest adjustments to make because you have complete control of your site’s content (as opposed to off-site SEO, in which you rely on other webmasters to make modifications). 

Following are the key factors improving your On-page SEO.


If you are interested about how the search engine operates, the design of the website is one of the key components. When Googlebot crawls the web analyzing millions of websites, it looks for content relevant to the user’s search query being entered. Obviously, one of the primary components is the material that appears on the web sites, namely long form written material

Google is looking at a few items to decide if your content is sufficiently important to show up as a result of a search term:

  • Quality of the content, and whether the content is well formulated or spun and/or generated through a content bot.
  • The length of the article, and how long it is compared with other websites competing for the same queries.
  • Freshness of content, and how the content was published online recently. How SEO works, especially in terms of content freshness, means that older content is less relevant than newer content, and less likely to respond to the intention of the search query.

Layout and Architecture  

The architecture and layout of your website is another way of how search engines work. Googlebot, a simple but very sturdy piece of software, is designed to reward internet sites that require the lowest amount of human power to process – and by extension – to navigate and to comprehend. The faster Google crawls and recognizes your website’s pages, the more you’ll be rewarded with search results.

Many of the key web design areas for optimisation depending on how SEO operates include:

  • Crawl effectiveness, and Google’s ability to use the minimum amount of energy and bandwidth to understand how big your website is and what it’s about.
  • Mobile-friendliness, and if the website has a sensitive format that can quickly be read and digested like a smartphone or tablet on a mobile device.
  • Duplicate information, and avoid pages containing the same material that might confuse a search user and minimize your website’s appeal to them.
  • Page speed, and the speed at which the user loads a page onto a website browser. Google also has a Page Speed tool to test this for you, free of cost.

Technical Optimization

The Technological Optimization of your website, namely your HTML, is one of the more complicated but just as important areas of SEO that Google regards. Some important areas in the workings of search engine optimization include:

  • Title tags and keep the page title tailored for the correct length and keyword density of article;
  • Meta description and convincing description of what every page is about on your website. This is the information segment that appears in your search result under your Page Title.
  • Layout, including pages and content structure and hierarchy within the Website. A poorly configured website would also affect your website’s crawl-efficiency
  • Stuffing, i.e. not inserting too many keywords into a single post, showing Google that you’re trying to “play the game” and generate content of poor quality.
2. SEO Off Page
“Off-site SEO” (also known as “off-page SEO”) refers to the steps taken outside your own website to affect your search engine optimization rankings (SERPs). Off-page is the most significant ranking signal according to Google in how SEO and search engines operate.
Optimizing off-site ranking factors helps boost search engine perception and perception of the popularity, relevance, trustworthiness and authority of a site. It is achieved by other reputable Internet blogs (pages, blogs, individuals, etc.) linking to (backlinks) or endorsing your website (social media engagement), and essentially for your content’s consistency.
Off-page authority decides how valid a website page you receive a backlink from is. It is Not Domain Authority, but a tool used to measure how well you are likely to rank your own site in search results. We can assess authority by looking at:
The reputation of the connection page, namely how many other reputable websites have connected to the site itself.
The age of the link page, namely how long Google has been living, crawling and indexing the piece of content. For the authority of links, which is the opposite approach for quality content on your website, older content is considerably stronger.
Quality link
Off-page quality defines how effective a connection can be from a specific website. There are many factors that go into a backlink to quality, but the most important is:
The relevance of the topic of the linked site to website being linked to, namely to ensure that material is applicable to the linked page and the page on your website. Put simply, if you’re an accounting software company you don’t want a link to dog grooming from a website page.
The link’s “freshness,” namely, how old or new the link has been placed. While we want the page where the link exists to be older, we want the link to be newer on the page – this tells Google that you are now authoritative and relevant, not in the past!
The anchor text which is used on the linking website, namely that the anchor text is suitable for the article context and is optimized for your entire portfolio of anchor texts. Exact match anchors are incredibly successful, but if they are overused they will cause a penalty for over-optimization, which may take months to recover.

SEO Keyword Research & Targeting

In search engine optimization, the first step is to decide what you are really optimizing for. It involves finding things that people are searching for, often called “keywords,” that you want your website to feature in search engines such as Google. For example, you would want your gadget agency to show up when people are searching for “gadgets,” and maybe when they type in stuff like “buy gadgets.” 

When deciding the keywords you wish to target on your blog, there are several key factors to consider:

Search volume – How many people are actually searching for a given keyword is the first factor to consider. The more people you ‘re looking for a keyword, the greater the potential market you’ll be targeting. Conversely, when no one is looking for a keyword, there is no audience available to search for your content.

Relevance – A word can be searched regularly, but that doesn’t automatically mean it’s important to your prospects. Keyword relevance, or the correlation between a site’s content and the user’s search query, is a key ranking signal.

Competition – Keywords with such a higher search volume may drive large amounts of traffic, but there could be intense competition for premium placement on the search engine results pages.

You need to first understand who your prospective customers are, and what they are likely to be looking for. From here you must understand:

  1. Which sorts of stuff do they want?
  2. What are their problems?
  3. Which kind of words do they use to explain the things they do, the tools they use and so on?
  4. Where else does it buy things from?

After these questions have been addressed, you should have an initial seed list of potential keywords and domains to help you find potential keyword ideas and put certain search volume and rivalry metrics around.

Where to find keywords?

Your first job is to come up with the seed keywords – phrases you’ll use to find more keyword ideas as the stepping stone. Easy phrases like “coffee beans,” “coffee pots” or “mocha” would work well if you run a coffee blog.

The classic approach to keyword searching:

 1. Google suggestions

Google provides several recommendations for keywords directly inside SERP. Features like Google Autocomplete, People Also Ask or Related Searches can be a great source of ideas about keywords.

With the autocomplete function, all you need to do is enter your seed keyword into Google Search and the suggestions will automatically show up.

 2. Keyword Tools

There are several free keyword resources available that can provide you with thousands of keyword ideas based on a single keyword seed. One of the most popular is Google Keyword Planner even if keyword research for PPC ads is its main focus.

AnswerThePublic is another popular free-tool. It produces hundreds of autocomplete suggestions automatically from Google.

White Hat, Black Hat And Grey Hat SEO

White Hat SEO

It is a compilation of ethical strategies which are compliant with guidelines and rules. The fundamental parts of SEO White hat are:

  • Performance and related material
  • Total optimisation of website
  • Link building

White hat SEO is a long-term approach dedicated to improving user experience. In general terms, being a good guy in the SEO world is considered to be the right direction.

Black Hat SEO 

It is a collection of unethical activities in search engine results page to boost a website’s rankings. They are designed to affect search engines, without taking into account the human factor.

Black hat SEO can get you to the top of the SERP in a short period of time but search engines would most likely sooner or later penalize and ban the website.

Grey Hat SEO 

There’s also a practice called the Grey hat SEO, a practice when compared with the Black hat techniques, you may risk less. Grey hat techniques aren’t clearly defined by Google so you can gain thousands of website users a day later while not being penalized or losing all of your rankings.

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